Economic Profile 2020: The Evolution of the Bay Area Higher Education System in the Wake of COVID-19
25岁以上人口中有49%拥有学士学位, 旧金山湾区是美国受教育程度最高的地区之一. This level of educational attainment is matched only by Boston (also 49%) and is well above the 33% national average. The region is also home to several institutions making impressive research investments. 加州大学旧金山分校, 斯坦福大学(10), 加州大学伯克利分校(26名), all rank within the top institutions nationwide in terms of expenditure on science and technology R&D. 另外, MBA and undergraduate degree holders from Stanford and UC Berkeley have started impressive numbers of companies backed by significant venture capital. 根据麦肯锡对Pitchbook的分析 & Company, between 2009 and 2017 Stanford and UC Berkeley graduates started a total of 2,948 companies. The region also has five different California State University campuses and an array of community colleges.
The continued strength of the region’s higher education institutions is a key input to the vitality of the Bay Area economy. These campuses produce entrepreneurial graduates and support significant investment in R&D, which are two integral inputs to the innovative nature of the Bay Area economy that drives economic growth in the region.
这些机构正在努力应对COVID-19的影响, 它们未来的轨迹至少仍部分未知. 不确定的入学水平导致的收入担忧, 部分或全部远程教学的可能性, and changes in first-choice school preferences among incoming students are all variables that could reshape higher education in the Bay Area in the wake of the virus.
场景# 1: Can the Bay Area make progress on racial disparities in educational attainment?
与全国主要地区相比, the Bay Area leads the nation in terms of the share of people who hold bachelor’s degrees. 然而, examining educational attainment among racial and ethnic groups shows wide disparities in the share of Bay Area residents age 25+ who hold bachelor’s degrees. Only 28% of Black and 18% of Latinx Bay Area residents over the age of 25 hold a bachelor’s degree, 而在25岁以上的白人居民中，持有学士学位的比例为46%.
加州的录取，入学和大学完成率 所有显示 种族和族裔不平等:
招生虽然近年来已经取得了一些进展, the UC admissions rate for Black applicants in 2016 was still only 47% compared to 62% among white applicants.
招生: Only 3% of all Black students enrolled in post-secondary education institutions in the state in 2016-17 were enrolled at UC colleges, 而白人学生的比例只有6%. 黑人学生更有可能被社区大学录取, with 72% of Black students enrolled in a post-secondary institute at community colleges (68% of white undergraduates).
大学完成: College completion rates for Black students lag behind the comparative rate for white students. The six-year completion rate at UC colleges is 75% for Black students compared to 86% for white students; 43% compared to 37% at CSU campuses; and 37% compared to 54% at community colleges.
The drivers behind this inequity in post-secondary education enrollment and completion are dependent on many factors that occur earlier on in the educational system. 特别是, inequities in school funding can impact the readiness of graduates for post-secondary education.
场景# 2: What impact would lower levels of international student enrollment have on Bay Area higher education institutions?
根据 一个分析 美国国家政策基金会, the enrollment of new international students is projected to decrease from 2018-19 levels by between 63% and 98% in 2020, 基于目前COVID-19造成的边境限制. 在美国，这里是国际学生人数最多的国家.S. 州, many California institutions would be particularly impacted by a decline in new international student enrollment. 国际学生占14人.占加州大学总招生人数的4%, so a lasting decline could have significant impacts on the student population. 在海湾地区, schools such as UC Berkeley and Stanford University that contribute to the unique strength of the economy traditionally host thousands of international students.
展览# 3: R大学将如何&D .在COVID-19之后，投资发生了转移?
The university systems of the region are also major contributors to research and development (R&D，尤其是在生命科学领域. 而某些生命科学R&D labs are kicking into overdrive with the vital goal of developing a vaccine or treatment for COVID-19, 该领域和非生命科学的其他分支R&D fields face challenges in continuing their course amidst the implications of the virus. 调查 证明了R&D organizations estimate productivity has fallen between 25 and 75 percent due to remote work, likely a factor of operating capacity being reported as 50 percent below normal.
将操作能力, 供应链中断, and laboratory shutdowns all have implications on the short-term productivity of product development, 工程, 临床试验, 和更多的. Uncertainty around future market and customer demands further impact the ability of R&D组织要确定项目和资源的优先次序.
与高等教育的细分相比，R&D在国家层面上按领域的支出, the Bay Area has an over representation of spending in the life sciences field, 三分之二的人接受过高等教育&D .截至2018财政年度，生命科学方面的支出集中. 生命科学R&D是该地区的一个明显优势, 它可以与旧金山湾区快速增长的生物技术产业相联系. 有很多R&D来自州政府和联邦政府的拨款项目, constrained public sector budgets in the wake of the pandemic could hamper spending levels going forward.
随着该地区开始从大流行的经济影响中复苏, ensuring the strength of the Bay Area’s higher education institutions and maintaining the comparatively high level of educational attainment in the region are both integral inputs needed to protect the long-term vigor of the regional economy. 像这样, 密切关注教育程度等因素, 国际入学的障碍, R的变化&D消费在这个复苏时期是重要的.